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might be possible for ordinary children to acquire a knowledge of
the Bible and the catechism, and to be taught physical exercises
and music (which he commends for their effect on body and
mind); but the study of Latin, Greek and Hebrew—the
" languages "—is plainly intended for the more select group of
scholars in training as preachers, or teachers, or officers of State.
So also is mathematics, which he conjoins elsewhere with dialectic
and rhetoric as subjects of university standing. In view of his
desire to have the Bible in the hands of the people in their own
language, the absence of any mention of provision for instruction
in the vernacular is a notable and somewhat surprising omission.
That, he says, is best learned " from ordinary speech at home,
in the market-place, and in the pulpit." Obviously what was
involved in his scheme was a distinction between elementary
schools for the children of the people, and higher language
schools for those who were likely to occupy positions of responsi-
bility in civil or ecclesiastical life; and though the distinction
was not clearly drawn by himself, it soon made its appearance in
the school systems of the Protestant States.



Luther's call for a reformation of education as an essential
part of the greater Reformation on which Germany had em-
barked met a ready response both from the princes and from
the scholars who had adopted the Protestant faith; and as a
result of the co-operation of the civil authorities with the repre-
sentatives of learning and piety, the work of educational recon-
struction went rapidly forward. Attention was mainly directed
to the universities and the higher schools. In the first place,
the medieval city schools which were to be found in most of the
larger centres were gradually re-organized, and some additions
were made to their number. And after 1543, when Maurice of
Saxony established three Princes' Schools with endowments
set free by the dissolution of the monasteries, there arose by the
side of the city schools a more modern type of school, financed
and controlled by the States with a view to their own social needs.